Frequently Asked Questions

  1. Where is my discipline (e.g., epidemiology, physiology, radiology)?

  2. Where are specific technical skills (e.g., post-mortem examination)?

  3. Why does this framework focus on clinical graduate outcomes rather than public health, research, and other non-clinical career paths?

  4. How does this framework relate to the COE nine clinical competencies?

  5. Within the new framework, where are public health and One Health?

  6. Where are difficult decisions included (e.g., end of life, finances, etc.)?

  7. Why are all EPAs clinical?

  8. How would a school implement EPAs? Is this one big exam?

  9. How do EPAs relate to OSCEs?

  10. How would schools address the challenge of students performing EPAs in clinics with limited primary case responsibility?


1. Where is my discipline (e.g., epidemiology, physiology, radiology)?

In the CBVE framework, domains of competence are inclusive of foundation/basic sciences. Individual subject matter is not outlined specifically as it is expected to be included in higher level thinking (i.e., outcomes for a veterinary graduate). For example, a student that is competent in “CBVE competency 1.1 - Gathering and assimilating relevant information about animals” should be expected to perform and interpret results from the physical examination, which requires a working knowledge of physiology, anatomy, infectious disease, etc.

2. Where are specific technical skills (e.g., post-mortem examination)?

Specific skills such as intravenous catheterization or post-mortem/necropsy examination, for example, are not specifically listed in the CBVE competencies. The CBVE competencies are overarching and many of the specific technical skills can be found within those competencies. For example, a student that is competent in “CBVE competency 2.1 - Performs veterinary procedures and post-procedural care” must be able to perform many technical skills.

3. Why does this framework focus on clinical graduate outcomes rather than public health, research, and other non-clinical career paths?

The CBVE framework outlines “clinical reasoning and decision making” in domain of competence 1, as a representation of the skills necessary to “think critically” in any aspect of the veterinary profession. No matter the career choice, “synthesizing and prioritizing problems” (CBVE competency 1.2) is an important aspect of the healthcare professions. Veterinary education maintains its foundation in the care for animals with more specific career pathways to be defined based upon regional and societal needs or foci of individual programs.

4. How does this framework relate to the COE nine clinical competencies?

The CBVE framework is based upon a variety of resources, including the nine clinical competencies established by the Council on Education (COE).

5. Within the new framework, where are public health and One Health?

The CBVE framework is considered core for all students in all schools and developed to be achievable by all schools. Its design reflects the clinical professional degree and the competencies that are common across schools rather than outcomes that may be taught at a specific school given each school's unique mission and philosophy. In the CBVE framework, domain of competence 4 is dedicated to public health: “The graduate responds to issues at the interface of animals, humans, and the environment, utilizing a global perspective and sensitivity to local cultures.” One Health fits well within the scope of this domain as outlined in CBVE competency 4.2 - Promotes the health and safety of people and the environment.

6. Where are difficult decisions included (e.g., end of life, finances, etc.)?

Domain 5 Communication states “the graduate communicates effectively with diverse clients, colleagues, other healthcare professionals and the public to promote animal, human and environmental health and wellbeing” and CBVE competency 5.2 states the graduate will “demonstrate client-centered communication.” There are subcompetencies listed in this domain that exemplify end-of-life discussions and this would be where other difficult discussions would be developed by individual programs.

7. Why are all EPAs clinical?

Entrustable Professional Activities (EPAs) are designed to represent core activities veterinary professionals will encounter at entry-level in the workplace, and are distinct from simulations in the practical laboratory or classroom. Colleges and schools may wish to create additional EPAs for their unique contexts and that are focused on additional workplace-based activities.

8. How would a school implement EPAs? Is this one big exam?

Based upon the medical education literature, EPAs are performed in the clinical setting across a rotation/service experience. For veterinary education, EPAs are predominantly performed as students rotate through various clinical experiences. An EPA in itself is not an assessment, but rather provides the foundation for the development of assessment rubrics because it describes activities in the workplace. EPAs are also useful to provide feedback and insight into students’ performance.

9. How do EPAs relate to OSCEs?

Objective, structured, clinical examinations (OSCEs) are timed units of assessment most commonly performed through models, simulation, and/or case-based experience in the curriculum. An EPA represents a workplace-based activity and provides a foundation for the development of workplace-based assessment. EPAs may be performed during the final year of the veterinary program over a period of time (e.g., within a clinical service rotation and across multiple rotations).

10. How would schools address the challenge of students performing EPAs in clinics with limited primary case responsibility?

For some of the EPAs, students will require a clinical service where hands-on and primary case responsibility is possible. For other EPAs, performance may require more direct faculty supervision.

About
Definitions
Framework
EPAs
Milestones
Assessment
Implementation
FAQs
Resources