Definitions

Assessment
An ongoing process of gathering information about a learner’s knowledge, skills, and /or behavior (ACGME, 2013).

Attitudes
A way of thinking and feeling about something/someone that is based on values, education, experience, and typically reflected in behavior.

Competence
The array of abilities (knowledge, skills, and attitudes) across multiple domains or aspects of performance in a certain context. Statements about competence require descriptive qualifiers to define the relevant abilities, context, and stage of training. Competence is multi-dimensional and dynamic. It changes with time, experience, and setting (Frank et al., 2010).

Competency
An observable ability of a health professional related to a specific activity that integrates knowledge, skills, values, and attitudes. Since competencies are observable, they can be measured and assessed to ensure their acquisition (Frank et al., 2010).

Competency-Based Veterinary Education
An outcomes-based approach to the design, implementation, assessment, and evaluation of veterinary programs, using an organized framework of competencies (as adapted Frank et al., 2010).

Competency Framework
An organized and structured representation of a set of interrelated and purposeful competencies (Willet, 2012).

Competent Possessing
The minimum required abilities in all domains in a certain context at a defined stage of veterinary education, training, or practice (Frank et al., 2010).

Day One Competencies
Competencies required at the time of graduation, synonymous with “entry-level competencies” (Welsh et al., 2009).

Domains of Competence (DOC)
Broad distinguishable areas of competence that together constitute a general descriptive framework for a profession (Englander et al., 2013).

Entrustable Professional Activity (EPA)
An essential task of a discipline that a learner can be trusted to perform with limited supervision in a given context respecting regulatory requirements, once sufficient competence has been demonstrated (as adapted from Englander et al., 2017).

Evaluation
The systematic collection and analysis of information related to the design, implementation, and outcomes of a program, for the purpose of monitoring and improving the quality and effectiveness of the program

Formative Assessment
Assessment of a student with the primary purpose of providing feedback for improvement as well as to reinforce skills and behaviors that meet established criteria and standards without passing a judgment in the form of a permanently recorded grade or score (ACGME, 2013).

Incompetent
Lacking the required abilities to carry out a context-specific task at the predetermined performance level for a defined stage of veterinary education, training, or practice (Englander et al., 2017).

Milestone
A defined, observable marker of an individual’s ability along a developmental continuum (Englander et al., 2017).

Objectives
Represents the intended results or consequences of instruction, curricula, programs or activities. Describes the goals and intentions of the instructor in teaching the course or learning activity. Focuses on the content and skill of the course or learning activity.

Outcomes
States what a learner can specifically "do" at the end of a learning session or program. Represents the achieved results or consequences of what has been learned.

Skill
A specific task or activity that can be performed by individuals (practitioners/learners) as a result of training, experience or practice; skills may be categorized as technical/clinical and nontechnical/professional skills.

Subcompetency
To better describe each competency, illustrative subcompetencies are provided as examples of content that may be modified or refined by individual schools. Subcompetencies are more granular than competencies and can be used to develop course or rotation objectives and assessments.

Summative Assessment
Assessment with the primary purpose of establishing whether or not performance measured at a single defined point in time meets established performance standards, permanently recorded in the form of a grade or score (ACGME, 2013).

Values
A set of principles or standards of behavior that reflect what an individual believes is important in life, and influences their choices and behaviors.

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